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Tuesday, 11 September 2018

(4.1.8) Difference between 'Before' and 'Ago'

What is the difference between 'Before' and 'Ago' ? Before और  Ago में क्या अंतर है ?

1. Before means formerly (पहले  )
Examples :
He did that once before.
He never saw me before.
2. Before means from the present time dating backwards. (वर्तमान समय से पीछे की तरफ )
Examples :
His father died six years ago.
They came here three days ago.

Monday, 10 September 2018

(6.9.1) Generic use of 'A', 'An' and 'The'

Generic use of A, An and The 

Generic means common to a whole group or class, not special.
Look at the following sentences -
1. A cow is a gentle animal.
2.The cow is a gentle animal.
These sentences have the same meaning. They do not refer to any particular cow but to the whole class. They mean the same as :
Cows are gentle animals.
Now look at the following sentences -
1. A dog is a faithful animal.
2. The dog is a faithful animal.
3. Dogs are faithful animals.
ऊपर के वाक्यों में  A तथा  The  का प्रयोग Generic reference  में है ; क्योंकि यहाँ किसी particular dog   की चर्चा नहीं की जा रही बल्कि पूरे कुत्ता   समुदाय ( whole community or class of  dogs )  की चर्चा की जा रही है। यहाँ तीनों वाक्यों के अर्थ में  कोई अंतर नहीं है। पूरे समुदाय या जाति  का बोध करने के लिए plural noun  के पहले "The " का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।
Related posts -
(6.1.6) What is a determiner
(6.1.8) What is an article 
(9.1.2) Pronunciation of A, An and The 

Wednesday, 5 September 2018

(6.5.1) Prepositions have no fixed meanings

Why are mistakes made while using Prepositions , Prepositions  के प्रयोग करने में गलती क्यों होती है ?

Prepositions have no fixed meanings of their own but they get their meanings from the situation or the context they are used. A preposition can give different meanings in different situations. Because of this thing students make mistakes while using prepositions.
In the following sentences different prepositions have been used for the Hindi word 'में '
1. He is in the room. (in = में, स्थिति या स्थिरता दिखाने के लिये  )
2. It is five minutes to seven. (to = में, घड़ी में बजने में दिखाने के लिये  )
3. The boy went into the room. (into = में ' बाहर से अंदर की तरफ गति दिखाने के लिए )
4. He has  sold old car for eighty thousand rupees.(for = में ,कीमत दिखाने के लिये )
5. I bought this book for fifty rupees. (for = में , कीमत दिखाने के लिये )
6. What is the time by your watch? (by= में , घड़ी में समय दिखाने के लिये )
In the same way different prepositions are used for the Hindi word 'से '
(1) The boy is coming from school. (From = से )
(2) He has been teaching in this school for two years.(For = से )
(3) Ramesh has been doing this work since morning. (Since = से )
(4) He generally writes in blue ink. (In = से  )
(5) We see with our eyes. (With = से  )

Monday, 3 September 2018

(3.1.5) Special use of 'Matter'

What is the use of 'Matter' 

The following two special uses of 'Matter' are very common -
(A) Noun -
'What is the matter?' means 'What is the trouble?' or 'What is the difficulty?'
'What is the matter with your ears?' means 'What is wrong with your years?'
(B) Verb -
'It doesn't matter.' means 'It is not important.'
'It won't matter.' means 'It will do no harm.'

(3.1.4) The use of 'Just because'

What is the meaning of 'Just because' ? When is 'Just because' used ?

(A) 'Just because' is used to mean 'simply because'.
(B) 'Just because' is used for saying that even if one thing is true, this is not a reason for concluding that something else is true.
(C) 'Just because' का भाव होता है "यद्यपि एक बात सही है, तो यह आवश्यक नहीं है कि दूसरी भी सही हो "
Examples :
(1) Just because he is rich, it does not mean he is better than us.
(2) Just because I am your friend, it does not mean you always depend on me.
(3) Don't create problems for others just because you hold an office.

Sunday, 2 September 2018

(4.1.7) Difference between Beside and Besides

What is the difference between 'Beside'and 'Besides' ?

Beside का अर्थ होता है 'पास में ' या 'बगल में ' या  'समीप '  यानि  'by the side of'' इससे स्थान का बोध होता है। 
 'Besides ' का अर्थ होता है 'अतिरिक्त ' या  'के अलावा ' यानि 'in addition  to '
Ram came and sat beside me. राम आया और मेरे पास बैठ गया।
I can speak English besides Hindi. मैं हिन्दी  के अतिरिक्त अंग्रेजी भी बोल सकता हूँ।
अन्य उदहारण -
The baby was sleeping beside his mother.
He stood beside me.
The ate mangoes besides apples.
India exports tea besides cotton.

(5.1.3) Idioms

What is an idiom , List of important phrases

What is an idiom 
An idiom is a group of words with a special meaning, which cannot be understood by taking the meanings of the words one at a time.
शब्दों का वह समूह जिसका एक विशेष अर्थ हो तथा जिसे शब्दों को अलग  अलग अर्थ कर नहीं  समझा जा सके idiom कहलाता है।
List of some important idioms - 
All in all (करता धरता) The headmaster is all in all in this school.
Above all - (सबसे बढ़कर ) Above all , he is truthful and never tells a lie.
After all - (आखिरकार , अंततः )After all, you are my friend and I must help you.
Again and again - (बार बार )- I have advised him again and again but he does not acts upon it.
Against a rainy day -(बुरे दिनों के लिए) - Everyone must save some money against a rainy day.
At any rate -  (हर हालत में, चाहे कुछ भी हो) - I must finish this work today at any rate. 

Monday, 27 August 2018

(6.1.11) Synthesis

What is Synthesis

Synthesis-  Synthesis means the combination of two or more simple sentences in to one new sentence. That new sentence may be a simple sentence or a compound sentence or a complex sentence.
The following are the ways of the combining two or more simple sentences into one simple sentence:-
(1) By using Participles:
(a)  Hari saw a deadly snake. He ran away. 
= Seeing a deadly snake, Hari ran away
(b) He opened the cage. He let the lion out. 
= opening the cage, he let the lion out
(c)  Ram finished his home work. He went to market. 
= Having finished his home work, Ram went to the market.
(d) He was tired or walking. He needed some rest. 
= Tired of walking, he needed some rest.
(2) By using an infinitives:
(a)  He went to the market. He wanted to buy some sugar.
= He went  to market to buy some sugar
(b) The boy is running fast. He wants to catch the bus.
 = The boy is running fast to catch the bus.
(3) By using an adverb or and adverbial phrase
(a)  He gave the answer to the question. The answer was correct.
= He gave the answer to the question correctly.
(b) It was my friend’s birthday. I congratulate him. 
= I congratulated my friend on his birthday 
OR I congratulated my friend. It was his birthday 
 =  I congratulated my friend on his birthday.

(4) By using an absolute phrase:
(a)  The Sun set. We returned home. 
= The Sun having set, we returned home.
(b) The police arrived. The robbers ran away.
= The police having arrived, the robbers ran away.
(5) By using a Noun or a Phrase in Apposition:
(a)  Milton was a famous poet. He wrote Paradise Lost.
= Milton, a famous poet, wrote Paradise Lost.
(b) Separate- Columbus was a sailor. He discovered America. 
=Combined-  Columbus, a sailor, discovered America
(6) By using a Preposition with a Noun or a Gerund.
(a)  Separate - I Came home. I Saw my mother.  
Combined- On coming home, I saw my mother
(b) Separate- Ram bought a book. He gave fifty rupees for it
= Ram bought a book for fifty rupees.

(6.1.11) Preposition

Preposition and its uses 

What is a Preposition ?
A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show its relation to some other word in a sentence.
Examples -
His pen is in his pocket.
Ram went to the hospital yesterday.
Seema is writing with a pencil.
लेकिन interrogative sentences , infinitive phrases तथा defining relative  clauses में preposition  का प्रयोग सामान्यतया sentence, phrase, तथा clause के बाद होता है। जैसे :
What is he thinking of?
What are you looking at?
What is this noise for?
The boy has no pen to write with.
Here is the man I spoke of.

Saturday, 25 August 2018

(9.1.2) Pronunciation of 'A' , 'An' and 'The'

What is the pronunciation of 'A' as an article ? What is the pronunciation of 'An' as an article ? What is the pronunciation of  'The' ?

(1)'A ' तथा 'An ' articles हैं।  इन्हें Indefinite articles कहा जाता है क्योंकि ये अनिश्चित Noun के साथ रहते हैं।
(2 ) Article के रूप में सामान्यतया ' A ' का उच्चारण 'अ ' किया जाता है और 'An ' का उच्चारण 'अन ' किया जाता है।
(3 ) 'The ' को Definite Article कहा जाता है क्योंकि यह निश्चित Noun के साथ प्रयुक्त होता है।
(A ) यदि 'The ' का प्रयोग किसी Consonant से शुरू होने वाले शब्द के पहले किया जाये तो इसका उच्चारण 'द ' होता है, जैसे :   This is the ( द ) question.
The (द) car.
The (द ) flower .
(B ) और किसी Vowel से शुरू होने वाले शब्द से पहले किया जाए तो इसका उच्चारण 'दि ' होता है। जैसे :
This is the ( दि ) answer .
The  (दि ) elephant.
The (दि ) engine.of the (द ) train. 
(C ) Adjective की  superlative degree  के पहले आने पर   'The' का उच्चारण 'दी' किया जाता है, जैसे :
The  (दी ) best.
The  (दी ) worst.
Related posts -
(6.1.6) What is a determiner
(6.1.8) What is an Article